Upper Southwest Atlantic

International actors and agreements in the region

See Global action and Global actors.

UNEP Regional Seas Programme. ••>

UNEP Global programme of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities (UNEP GPA). ••>

UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC). ••>

UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). ••>

Regional conventions, agreements, action plans and actors

A UNEP Regional Seas Action Plan for the Upper South-West Atlantic is under development. ••>

Latin American Agreement on Port State Control of Vessels (Viña del Mar Agreement). ••>

Treaty Concerning Rio de la Plata and the Corresponding Maritime Boundary. ••>

Private sector and NGOs actors and initiatives

Latin Petroleum Analytics (LAPA). ••>

Regional Association of Oil and Natural Gas Companies in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARPEL). ••>

Clean Caribbean Cooperative. ••>

Petrobras. Brazil's major oil company. See Environment.

Amazon Watch. ••>

Amazonia. Articles on oil exploration and exploitation in the region.

International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF). ••>

International Directory of Oil Spill Cleanup Contractors and Response Organisations. ••>

Oilwatch. ••>

Regional reports on the state of the marine and coastal environment

EcoPlata Project: Integrated Uruguayan Coastal Zone Management of the Río de la Plata Support Program. Apoyo a la Gestión Integrada de la Zona Costera Uruguaya del Río de la Plata. A governmental and inter-institutional agreement to contribute to the integrated management of the Río de la Plata Uruguayan coastal zone resources through the implementation of demonstration actions at pilot areas.

See "Río de la Plata. An environmental overview". El Río de la Plata. Una revisión ambiental.

UNEP GPA: Overview on Land-based Sources and Activities Affecting the Marine, Coastal and Associated Freshwater Environment in the Upper Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

UNEP GPA: Upper South-West Atlantic (brief description of environmental state, priority issues).

UNEP: Global Environment Outlook 3 (GEO3). Coastal and marine areas.

University of Rhode Island: Large Marine Ecosystems (LME): The Upper South West Atlantic includes three LMEs - the East Brazil Shelf, the South Brazil Shelf and the Patagonian Shelf.

National action

UNEP GPA: Brazilian National Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities in the Brazilian Section of the Upper SW Atlantic.

In March 2001, the world's largest (210 metres, 40-story high) oil rig sank in off the northeastern coast of Brazil, off Macae some190 km north of Rio de Janeiro, due to unexplained explosions that blasted through the platform. Ten workers were killed. The platform contained 1.5 million litres of oil on board, 5,100 tonnes of which were spilt in the sea.

Photo: © UNEP-WCMC.