21 World Summit on Sustainable Development CSD
21 is the comprehensive plan for global, national and local
action by organizations of the United Nations system, governments,
and major groups in every area in which human impacts on the
environment. Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development, and the Statement of principles for the Sustainable
Management of Forests, were adopted by 178 Governments at the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED),
held in 1992 at Rio de Janeiro.
17 of Agenda 21 deals with the protection of the oceans,
all kinds of seas (including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas,
and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development
of their living resources). Chapter
18 deals with freshwater (including the management of rivers
and lakes). Chapter
21 deals with solid waste ("all domestic refuse and
non-hazardous wastes such as commercial and institutional wastes,
street sweepings and construction debris. In some countries,
the solid wastes management system also handles human wastes.
Environmentally sound waste management is concerned not just
with safe disposal or recovery but also with the root cause
of the problem, such as unsustainable production and consumption
on Sustainable Development: The UN
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created
in 1992 to ensure effective follow-up of the UNCED; to monitor
and report on implementation of the Earth Summit agreements
at the local, national, regional and international levels.
also more information on the Sustainable
Development Web Site, including information on ocean
and seas; and freshwater.
2002 Summit (WSSD): Issues related to the protection
of the marine environment are included in the Johannesburg
Plan of Implementation adopted by the World Summit on Sustainable
Development (WSSD), held in 2002 at Johannesburg.
Plan contains a number of references to the need for more renewable
energy, energy efficiency, advanced energy technologies, including
advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and centralized,
distributed and decentralized energy systems. Explicit or implicit
references to oils and marine oil pollution are made in Paragraphs
20, 32 and 34:
and facilitate, as appropriate, regional cooperation arrangements
for promoting cross-border energy trade, including the interconnection
of electricity grids and oil and natural gas pipelines."
efforts, including through provision of financial and technical
assistance to developing countries, with the involvement
of the private sector, to reduce flaring and venting of
gas associated with crude oil production."
implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the
Protection of the Marine Environment from Land -based Activities
25 and the Montreal Declaration on the Protection of the
Marine Environment from Land -based Activities, with particular
emphasis during the period from 2002 to 2006 on municipal
wastewater, the physical alteration and destruction of habitats,
maritime safety and protection of the marine environment
from pollution by actions at all levels to: (a) Invite States
to ratify or accede to and implement the conventions and
protocols and other relevant instruments of the International
Maritime Organization relating to the enhancement of maritime
safety and protection of the marine environment from marine
pollution and environmental damage caused by ships, including
the use of toxic anti-fouling paints, and urge the International
Maritime Organization (IMO) to consider stronger mechanisms
to secure the implementation of IMO instruments by flag
also the sector
status report prepared by the oil and gas industry (through
the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers [OGP]
and International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation
Association [IPIECA]) for the Johannesburg Summit.
of the Sea Convention
on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which entered into force
in 1994, embodies and enshrines the notion that all problems
of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be addressed
as a whole. Today it is the globally recognized regime dealing
with all matters relating to the Law of the Sea.
Oceans and Law of the Sea web
site includes the full text of the Convention, as
well as information on Marine Resources and Marine Environment.
There is also information on Settlement of Disputes; links to
Documents and Publications; Education and Training; and a search
function to all Oceans and Law of the Sea documents.
Convention on Climate Change (FCCC)
is included as one of the greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto
Protocol of the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). According to the Protocol,
the emissions of greenhouse gases should be reduced by five
per cent by the year 2012, based on the emissions in 1990. The
oil and gas sector is included among those sectors/categories
within which measures should be taken to achieve this goal.
The Kyoto Protocol has not yet (January 2004) entered into force.
Regional Seas Programme UNEPDTIE UNEP-WCMC
Environment Programme (UNEP) is built on a heritage of service
to the environment. Established as a follow-up to the 1972 UN
Conference on the Human Environment, UNEP is the environmental
conscience of the United Nations system, and has been creating
a basis for comprehensive consideration and co-ordinated action
within the UN on the problems of the human environment. Its
mission is to provide leadership and encourage partnerships
in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling
nations and people to improve their quality of life without
compromising that of future generations.
Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment
from Land-based Activities (UNEP GPA) was adopted by 108
countries in 1995 (Washington Declaration). The Programme is
a global recognition of the fact that the major threats to the
health, productivity and biodiversity of the marine environment
result from human activities on land in coastal areas
and further inland.
of the pollution load in the oceans originates from land-based
activities, including municipal, industrial and agricultural
wastes and run-off, as well as atmospheric deposition. These
contaminants affect the most productive areas of the marine
environment, including estuaries and near-shore coastal waters.
The marine environment is also threatened by physical alterations
of the coastal zone, including destruction of habitats of
vital importance to maintain ecosystem health. One of the
major objectives of the GPA is to support and facilitate the
implementation of land-based sources/activities components
of the various UNEP Regional Seas Conventions and Action Programmes.
The UN Environment Programme is responsible for co-ordinating
and catalysing the implementation of the Programme. For this
purpose UNEP has established a GPA Co-ordination Office located
in the Netherlands.
has recently published a series of reports with regional overviews
of land-based sources and activities. These are available on-line
on the GPA document
oil pollution is dealt with in several of these.
Regional Seas Programme: The UNEP
Regional Seas Programme was initiated in 1974 as a global
programme implemented through regional components. It includes
14 regions and five partner seas with more than 140 coastal
states and territories. It is an action-oriented programme and
focuses not only on the mitigation and elimination of the consequences
but also on the causes of environmental degradation. The focus
of work has gradually shifted from protecting the marine environment
from pollution to striving for sustainable development of the
coastal and marine environment through integrated management.
An important accomplishment is the creation of regional mechanisms
(conventions and action plans) for cooperation between governments
and commitment to shared goals.
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics: UNEP Division
of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) was created
in 1998 and brought together the former UNEP International Environmental
Technology Centre, Industry and Environment Programme Activity
Centre, UNEP Chemicals, and Economics, Trade and Environment
Unit in an attempt to provide integrated responses to industrial
and urban issues.
Conservation and Monitoring Centre: The UNEPWorld
Conservation and Monitoring Centre (WCMC) compiles a large
amount of information relating to marine and coastal environments
and their conservation. Increasingly, this information is managed
using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Particular attention
is devoted to mapping sensitive coastal ecosystems and this
information is of interest to oil companies for oil
spill emergency response and contingency planning.
Offshore Oil and Gas Environment Forum: The Offshore
Oil and Gas Environment Forum web site is a medium to locate
and disseminate environmental information concerning the sustainable
development of the offshore oil and gas industry. The site is
intended to provide "a roadmap to guide the visitor to
existing information sources". See also the Environmental
Regulatory Frameworks for the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry.
73/78 Convention International Maritime Organization
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Shipping
(MARPOL 73/78) is the main international convention covering
prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from
operational or accidental causes. It is a combination of two
treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978, respectively, and has been
updated by a number of amendments through the years.
73/78 governs the design and equipment of ships; establishes
systems of certificates and inspections; requires states to
provide reception facilities for the disposal of oily waste
and chemicals. It covers all the technical aspects of pollution
from ships, except the disposal of waste into the sea by dumping,
and applies to ships of all types, although it does not apply
to pollution arising out of the exploration and exploitation
of seabed mineral resources.
73/78 regulates what kind and quantities of polluting substances
that ships may discharge into the sea, taking into account
the ecological sensitivity of different sea areas. Six Annexes
to MARPOL 73/78 cover regulations for specific kinds of pollution.
The regulations concerning oil and oily wastes are included
in Annex I, and air pollutants in Annex 6.
also, for example, Tanker
safety - preventing accidental pollution and Responding
to oil spills.
Maritime Organization (IMO) and its Marine
Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) is responsible for
co-ordinating the implementation of the MARPOL Convention. IMO
is the UN specialized agency responsible for improving maritime
safety and preventing pollution from ships. IMO also provides
the secretariat for other marine conventions, including the
London Convention, the Intervention Convention; the International
Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation
(OPRC); and the SOLAS Convention. See
also the IPIECA/IMO Global Initiative
Pollution Manual: The IMO Oil Pollution Manual provides
a useful guide for governments of developing countries and for
those persons directly associated with the sea transportation
and transfer of oil. The manual is divided into six sections
on Prevention, Contingency Planning, Salvage, Combating Oil
Spills, Administrative Aspects of Oil Pollution Response, and
Guidelines for Sampling and Identification of Oil Spills.
See this and other IMO publications
on maritime environmental protection.
IMO/UNEP Guidelines on Oil Spill Dispersant Application,
including Environmental Considerations, provide up-to-date information
on the use of oil spill dispersants. They are intended primarily
for use by Member Governments and other oil spill responders
and should be read with the Manual on Oil Pollution.
relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution
Casualties (Intervention Convention) entered into force
in 1975. It affirms the right of a coastal State to take such
measures on the high seas as may be necessary to prevent, mitigate
or eliminate danger to its coastline or related interests from
pollution by oil or the threat thereof, following upon a maritime
casualty. The 1973 Protocol extended the Convention to cover
substances other than oil. The lists of substances covered by
the Convention have been amended twice in 1991 and 1996. The
IMO provides the secretariat for the Convention.
1972 London Convention
(Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping
of Wastes and Other Matter, LC, formerly referred to as the
London Dumping Convention) entered into force in 1975. The 1996
Protocol to the London Convention has still not entered
into force, but is expected to do so in 2004 or 2005. When it
does it will replace the 1972 Convention. The IMO provides the
secretariat for both agreements.
purpose of the 1972 London Convention is to control all sources
of marine pollution and prevent pollution of the sea through
regulation of dumping into the sea of waste materials. A so-called
"black list" and "grey list" approach
is applied for wastes, which can be considered for disposal
at sea according to the hazard they present to the environment.
For the black list items dumping is prohibited. Dumping of
the grey-listed materials requires a special permit from a
designated national authority under strict control and provided
certain conditions are met. All other materials or substances
can be dumped after a general permit has been issued.
objective of the 1996 Protocol is to protect the marine environment
from all sources of pollution. Contracting Parties shall take
effective measures to prevent, reduce and where practicable
eliminate marine pollution caused by dumping or incineration
at sea. The purpose of the Protocol, which will eventually
replace the Convention, is similar to that of the Convention,
but the Protocol is more restrictive: application of a "precautionary
approach" is included as a general obligation; a "reverse
list" approach is adopted, which implies that all dumping
is prohibited unless explicitly permitted; incineration of
wastes at sea is prohibited; export of wastes for the purpose
of dumping or incineration at sea is prohibited. Extended
compliance procedures and technical assistance provisions
have been included, while a so-called transitional period
allows new Contracting Parties to phase in compliance with
the Protocol over a period of five years, provided certain
conditions are met.
also descriptions of the relationships
between the London Convention and the MARPOL Convention and
the UNEP GPA, respectively.
Bunker Oil Pollution Convention IMO
Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage
has not yet entered into force. It was adopted to ensure that
adequate, prompt, and effective compensation is available to
persons who suffer damage caused by spills of oil, when carried
as fuel in ships' bunkers. It applies to damage caused on the
territory, including the territorial sea, and in exclusive economic
zones of States Parties. It provides a free-standing instrument
covering pollution damage only. The
IMO provides the secretariat for the Convention.
Civil Liability Convention IMO
Liability Convention, CLC,
as amended by the 1992 protocol (now the 1992 Convention),
entered into force in 1996 (International
Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage.
It covers those who suffer oil pollution damage resulting
from maritime casualties involving oil-carrying ships. The
Convention covers spills of cargo and/or bunker oil from laden,
and in some cases unladen, sea-going vessels constructed or
adapted to carry oil in bulk as cargo (but not to dry cargo
ships). It places strict liability for such damage on the
owner of the ship from which the polluting oil escaped or
was discharged. The Protocol widened the scope of the Convention
to cover pollution damage caused in the exclusive economic
zone (EEZ) or equivalent area of a State Party. It covers
pollution damage but environmental damage compensation is
limited to costs incurred for reasonable measures to reinstate
the contaminated environment. It also allows expenses incurred
for preventive measures to be recovered even when no spill
of oil occurs, provided there was grave and imminent threat
of pollution damage.
The IMO provides the secretariat for the Convention.
Conventions on Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution
Damage. (Texts of the 1992 Civil Liabilty Convention and
the 1992 Fund Convention = the consolidated texts of the 1969
Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention as
amended by the 1992 Protocols)
info (tanker owners) on the Civil Liability Convention
and Fund Conventions.
Oil Pollution Compensation Funds 1971 and 1992
provide compensation for oil pollution damage resulting from
spills of persistent oil from tankers. The Funds are part of
an international regime of liability and compensation for oil
pollution damage caused by oil spills from tankers. Under the
regime, the owner of a tanker is liable to pay compensation
up to a certain limit for oil pollution damage following an
escape of persistent oil from his ship.
info on compensation in the cases of the 1999 Erika
and 2002 Prestige
info (tanker owners) on the Civil Liability Convention
and Fund Conventions.
IOPC Fund 1992:
are two Funds: the 1971 and the 1992 Fund. These two intergovernmental
organisations, with a joint Secretariat, were established
at different times, have different maximum amounts of compensation,
and had different Member States. The 1971 International Convention
on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation
for Oil Pollution Damage ceased to be in force in May 2002
and therefore has no Member States. It will continue to deal
with a number of incidents which occurred in 1971 Fund Member
States before that date. The 1992 International Convention
on the Establishment of an International Fund for Oil Pollution
Damage(see above: Civil Liability Convention) entered into
force in 1996. The 1992 Protocol (new Convention) replaces
the 1971 Convention.
IOPC Funds are financed by levies on certain types of oil
carried by sea. The levies are paid by entities which receive
oil after sea transport (any person who has received during
one calendar year more than 150,000 tonnes of crude oil or
heavy fuel oil in a State Party), and normally not by States.
Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation
(OPRC 90) entered into force in 1995. Parties to the OPRC are
required to establish measures for dealing with pollution incidents,
either nationally or in co-operation with other countries. Ships
are required to carry a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan,
the to be developed by IMO. Operators of offshore units under
the jurisdiction of Parties are also required to have oil pollution
emergency plans or similar arrangements which must be co-ordinated
with national systems for responding promptly and effectively
to oil pollution incidents. Ships are required to report incidents
of pollution to coastal authorities and the convention details
the actions that are then to be taken. The Convention calls
for the establishment of stockpiles of oil spill combating equipment,
the holding of oil spill combating exercises and the development
of detailed plans for dealing with pollution incidents. Parties
to the Convention are required to provide assistance to others
in the event of a pollution emergency and provision is made
for the reimbursement of any assistance provided. The IMO provides
the secretariat for the Convention.
of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention IMO
Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) entered
into force in 1980. The main objective of SOLAS is to specify
minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation
of ships, compatible with their safety. Flag States are responsible
for ensuring that ships under their flag comply with its requirements,
and a number of certificates are prescribed in the Convention
as proof that this has been done. Control provisions also allow
Contracting Governments to inspect ships of other Contracting
States if there are clear grounds for believing that the ship
and its equipment do not substantially comply with the requirements
of the Convention. This procedure is known as Port
State control. The current Convention includes Articles
setting out general obligations, amendment procedure etc., followed
by an Annex. The
IMO provides the secretariat for the Convention.
of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental
Protection (GESAMP) is a multidisciplinary body of independent
experts nominated by the Sponsoring Organizations (IMO, FAO,
UNESCO-IOC, WMO, WHO, IAEA, UN, UNEP). Its mission is to provide
advice to the Sponsoring Organizations, at their request, on
pollution and other problems that face marine and coastal environments.
activities include the preparation of an assessment report "The
State of the Marine Environment: Current Major Issues and Emerging
Problems", which considers the degradation of coastal ecosystems
and habitats, over-fishing and fishing of "under-utilised
species", threats from alien species, aquaculture as a
source of environmental problems, pressure from tourism and
a reduction of marine biodiversity.
report on land-based
sources and activities affecting the quality and use of
marine, coastal and related freshwater environments (including
oil-related issues) has recently been published, as well as
a report on threats to the marine environment ("A
Sea of Troubles"). The report "Impact of Oil
and Related Chemicals and Wastes on the Marine Environment"
(GESAMP Report 50) was published in 1993 (not available on-line).
A study on estimates of oil entering the marine environment
from sea-based sources is presently being conducted by a GESAMP
International Waters: [UNEP]
[World Bank] [UNDP] [UNIDO]
Environment Facility (GEF) is an independent, multilateral
financing mechanism created in 1991 to address global environmental
issues that do not normally get funded through national, bilateral,
and international finance.
GEF funds, developing countries and nations transitioning
to market economies can carry the added costs of making planned
projects environmentally friendly and finance regional approaches
to multinational problems. GEF
funds projects in four programme areas: Climate change; Biological
diversity; The ozone layer: and International
waters (> go to Focal Area: International Waters).
GEF is the leading multilateral entity working to reverse
the degradation of aquifers, basins, lakes, oceans, rivers,
and wetlands of international significance. In the GEF Operational
Strategy, four major areas of concern related to international
waters are identified: Degradation of the quality of transboundary
water resources; Physical habitat destruction; Introduction
of non-indigenous species; Excessive exploitation of living
and non-living resources.
UN organizations are GEF implementing agencies:
is responsible for the implementation of a number of projects
within the GEF Focal Area "International Waters",
The project list includes 23 projects, including projects
that deal with marine oil pollution.
Bank projects within "International Waters"
currently comprise 23 projects, several of them relevant to
the issue of marine oil pollution.
World Bank GEF International
Waters: go to Focal Area: International Waters. The
World Bank views the management of freshwater, coastal and marine
resources as a continuum from the upper reaches of a
watershed, flowing into rivers and to the confluence with the
coastal zone and the sea. The integration of the "environmental
dimension" of these connected resources has been an important
aspect of the Bank's work, which is realized through strategic
studies, regional programs, projects and advisory services.
At the regional level the World Bank, in cooperation with a
range of partners, is undertaking activities to support management
of a number of sea areas. At the national level, coastal zone
management activities are being supported in a diversity of
countries. The World Bank is also a founding member of the International
Coral Reef Initiative, and other initiatives for coral reef
and mangrove habitats, marine protected areas and integrated
Development Programme GEF projects within "International
Waters" aim at achieving a comprehensive, ecosystem-based
approach to the sustainable management of international waters
and to incorporate both developmental and ecological needs.
UNDP-GEF programmes under International
Waters include a large number of regional and global projects.
See also the UNDP brochure
on international waters.
The UN Industrial
Development Organization is the executing agency for some
GEF-funded "International Waters" projects in, e.g.,
the Gulf of Guinea and Humboldt Current Large Marine
Association of Oil & Gas Producers
Association of Oil & Gas Producers (OGP) is the worldwide
association of oil and gas companies involved in exploration
and production. Members include private and state-owned oil
and gas companies, national associations and petroleum institutes.
The OGP Environmental
Quality Committee was formed in 1977, and its key role is
to coordinate and represent the international oil and gas exploration
and production industry on environmental issues of international
Petroleum Council (WPC) was founded in 1933. It is non-political
and "provides a forum for discussing the issues facing
the oil industry on a worldwide basis" . The WPC is "dedicated
to the application of scientific advances in the oil and gas
industries, to technology transfer and to the use of the world's
petroleum resources for the benefit of mankind". The 59
member countries represent over 90 per cent of the world's major
oil and gas producing and consuming nations of the world. Each
country has a national committee made up from representatives
of the oil and gas industry, academia and research institutions
and government departments.
Companies International Marine Forum
International Marine Forum (OCIMF) is a voluntary association
of oil companies having an interest in the shipment and terminalling
of crude oil and oil products. The OCIMF mission is "to
be the foremost authority on the safe and environmentally responsible
operation of oil tankers and terminals, promoting continuous
improvement in standards of design and operation". The
primary objective of OCIMF are" the promotion of safety
and prevention of pollution from tankers and at oil terminals".
An important contribution to the overall safety of the industry
is the role that OCIMF plays in producing technical and operational
guidelines, either by itself or in co-operation with other industry
associations. OCIMF has produced more than 50 such guidelines.
Petroleum Industry Environmental Association
Petroleum Industry Environmental Association (IPIECA) was
established in 1974. It is a voluntary non-profit organization
whose membership includes both petroleum companies and associations
at the national, regional or international levels. Separate
working groups address global environmental issues related to
the petroleum industry: oil spill preparedness and response,
global climate change, biodiversity (with case studies from
various regions), fuel quality and vehicle emissions, and human
health. IPIECA also helps members identify new global environmental
and related issues and assesses their potential impact on the
and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs
the mid nineteenth century shipowners found themselves with
liabilities which their traditional hull underwriters (Lloyds)
were unable or unwilling to cover. In order to solve the problem
groups of shipowners formed themselves into mutual associations
and agreed to share each other's claims. These early organisations
have now developed into thirteen Mutual Insurance Associations
or so-called P&I Clubs, which between them insure the liabilities
of some 95% of the world's ocean going tonnage. Mutual The P&I
Clubs all operate on a mutual or non-profit basis aiming to
call up only sufficient money in each year to meet costs, expenses
and claims for that year. There are no shareholders and the
shipowner members of the Association insure each other. The
thirteen P&I Clubs co-operate in two important areas. First
the Clubs themselves share claims with each other and buy high
levels of reinsurance on a collective basis. This enables each
Club to provide much higher levels of cover than are normally
available in the commercial market. The insurance thus operates
in three tiers, firstly the Club will pay claims of up to USD
5 million, secondly the Pool of all Clubs will pay the next
USD 25 million and thirdly the claims excess of USD 30 million
(5+25) are reinsured as one collective contract which is said
to be the biggest liability reinsurance contract in the world.
The second area of co-operation is in matters of common interest,
such as new legislation or discussions at the International
Maritime Organization (IMO) or standard shipping contracts."
Tanker Owners Pollution Federation
Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) is a non-profit
making organisation, funded by the vast majority of the world's
shipowners. ITOPF offers a wide range of technical services,
the most important of which is responding to oil spills. Technical
advisers from the organisation have attended on-site at over
450 spills in more than 85 countries. See info on:
(espcially on recent tanker accidents)
series of Country & Regional Profiles provides a brief
overview (regularly updated) of the oil spill response arrangements
and clean-up resources in 160 maritime nations. Each Profile
gives details of the spill notification point; command structures
for both at-sea and on-shore response; the availability
of government-owned and privately-owned equipment; and the
status of relevant international conventions. ITOPF Country
Profiles include information on the national agencies responsible
for emeregency response, as well as on which international
conventions and agreement the country has adhered to.
data (numbers, sizes and causes of spills).
and effects (behaviour and impact of spilt oil).
of oil spills.
(international conventions and national legislation).
Association of Independent Tanker Owners
Association of Independent Tanker Owners (INTERTANKO) was
formed in 1970 and represents independent tanker owners "ensuring
that the oil that keeps the world turning is shipped safely,
responsibly and competitively". The organisation has more
the 230 member companies in 37 countries. It has a Safety, Technical
and Environment Committee, the aims of which include to promote
safety at sea and the protection of the environment through
communication and experience sharing; and to advise on aspects
of safety, environmental protection operation of tankers and
training in order to promote efficient and professional ship
operation. The Marine,
Environment and Chemical Section includes a number of issues
relating to marine oil pollution, but much of the information
is restricted and for INTERTANKO members only.
Association of Classification Societies
of the International
Association of Classification Societies (IACS) have a dual
role. They "deliver classification services by providing
third-party engineering analyses followed by periodical verification
of the ship's hull structure and mechanical and electrical system.
They also provide certification in accordance with various international
and national requirements." A ship built in accordance
with a Member Society's Rules and/or Regulations, and fulfilling
the applicable stability requirements, will be assigned a class
in the Register Book of the respective Society. More than 90
per cent of the world's cargo-carrying ships are covered by
the classification design, construction and through-life complicance
rules and standards set by the ten Member Societies and two
Associates of the IACS.
Oil Spill Conference
purpose of the International
Oil Spill Conference (IOSC) is to create a global colloquium
for public, government and business ideas addressing all aspects
of oil spills impacting the environment. Its goal is to "promote
an international exchange of information and ideas dealing with
spill prevention, planning, response and restoration processes,
protocols and technology; and to promote international sharing
of best practice as it relates to management of the varied impacts
of oil spills and their aftermath". The next Conference
will be held in May 2005, on the theme "Prevention, Preparedness,
Response & Restoration - Raising Global Standards".
member companies of the International
Salvage Union (ISU) with the motto "Keep the
pollutant in the ship!" "provide essential services
for the world's maritime and insurance communities". Members
are engaged in marine casualty response, pollution defence,
wreck removal, cargo recovery, towage and related activities.
See, for example: World
Salvage Directory Pollution
Directory of Oil Spill Cleanup Contractors and Response Organizations
purpose of the International
Directory of Oil Spill Cleanup Contractors and Response Organizations
is to list companies and response organizations that can respond
in an emergency to assist with an oil spill. The list includes
contractors worldwide (by country or U.S. state) with equipment
such as booms, skimmers and vacuum trucks, as well as spill
management contractors that provide emergency technical support.
A comprehensive list of links also to oil spill control associations,
wildlife rescue associations, national resources (programmes,
organizations), oil issues discussion groups, oil spill publications
and news, oil industry associations, and organizations for health,
safety and training. Also a photo
gallery with images of oil spills and equipment for oil
Spill Response Limited
Spill Response Limited (OSRL) was established in 1985 as
an industry resource. It is owned by 26 of "the most responsible
and committed oil companies". The OSRL objective is to
"meet oil spill response, training and consultancy needs
on a global basis". Also links to ohter international oil
industry response organizations (East Asia, Australia, Caribbean,
U.S., Japan, etc.)
Association of Ports and Harbours
its inception, the International
Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) has "served
the global port industry and formed a global alliance of ports
and harbors over the past decades". Being the World Ports
Association, IAPH comprises some 230 regular members, leading
ports in 89 countries, who are public port authorities, private
port operators and government agencies.
is an international network of environmental, human rights,
religious, and local organizations. The network "supports
and strengthens local initiatives in the struggle against negative
impact of oil and gas exploitation in tropical countries, as
well as educates and raises the consciusness of the general
public, politicians and the oil industry, on a globl level."
Oilwatch has member organisations in more than 50 countries
in all parts of the world.
es "una red de resistencia a las actividades petroleras
en los países tropicales. La red Oilwatch nació
inspirada en la necesidad de desarrollar estrategias globales
de las comunidades afectadas por actividad petrolera y de
apoyar los procesos de resistencia de las comunidades que
no quieren ver sus territorios afectados, trabajar por la
sustentabilidad y los derechos colectivos".
International has been active in campaigns on decomissioning
of oil platforms, especially the
Brent Spar, in the North Sea, and in protests agains sub-standard
Action Network works "to protect the Earth's rainforests
and support the rights of their inhabitants through education,
grassroots organizing, and non-violent direct action".
See the publication on oil exploitataion: Drilling
to the Ends of Earth.