International actors and agreements in the region

See Global action and Global actors.

UNEP Global programme of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities (UNEP GPA). ••>

Regional conventions, agreements, action plans and actors

Antarctic Treaty • Protocol on Environmental Protection (Madrid Protocol) • Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP). ••>

Convention on the Conservation of Antartic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) • CCAMLR Commission. ••>

Antarctica has been designated as a Special Area for the purpose of Annex I to MARPOL 73/78.

Regional reports on the state of the marine and coastal environment

The Committee for Environmental Protection (Antarctic Treaty) is in the process of preparing a State of the Environment report for Antarctica.

"Ross Sea Region 2001: A State of
Environment Report for the Ross Sea
Region of Antarctica
". The New Zealand Antarctic Institute.

Global Environment Outlook 3 (GEO3). Coastal and marine areas: Antarctica. UNEP.

State of the Antarctic environment. Presented by UN Secretary General to the 1996 UN General Assembly.

Large Marine Ecosystems (LME): Antarctic LME. University of Rhode Island.


National action and actors

British Antarctic Survey. An institute of the National Environmental Research Council. Has undertaken most of the British scientific research in and around Antarctica. See the Oil Contingency work.

Australian Antarctic Division. Part of the Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Heritage. Administers Australia's wide-ranging activities in Antarctic and subantarctic regions (Antarctic research and other activities; administration and maintenance of presence in Australian Antarctic and subantarctic territories). See also "Keeping Antarctic oil spills in check" (International Conference on Contaminants in Freezing Ground).

New Zealand Antarctic Institute (Antarctica New Zealand). Responsible for developing, managing and administering New Zealand activities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, in particular the Ross Sea Dependency. Responsible for maintaining and enhancing the quality of New Zealand scientific research, and taking an active role in environmental stewardship through special projects and ongoing management.

U.S. Antarctic Program. A section within the National Science Foundation, supported by the U.S. Government. Scientific research, and operational support of that research, to understand the region and its ecosystems; to understand its effects on (and responses to) global processes such as climate; and to use the region as a platform to study the upper atmosphere and space.

Antarctica: Fact Sheet (oil exploration, oil spills). U.S. Energy Information System.

Private sector actors and initiatives. NGOs.

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC). A non-governmental organisation comprised of 240 member groups in 50 countries. Works "to ensure that the environment comes first when decisions are made under the Antarctic Treaty System".

"At the Bellingshausen research base ... a constant seep of oil was detected from the pile of waste on the beach as well as from leaky diesel tanks used for fuelling the base's generators". Photo: © U.K. Environment Agency: Action Antarctica . Spill responders row towards the grounded Bahia Paraiso, where she sits grounded leaking diesel fuel into a pristine ecological environment. Photo: © NOAA, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Response and Restoration.