International actors and agreements in the region

See Global action and Global actors.

UNEP Regional Seas Programme (with the Arctic as a partner sea area):"A combination of several factors makes the Arctic and its inhabitants among the most exposed populations in the world. The biggest concerns today are the effects from long-range air and sea transport of contaminants and certain human activities such as interference with ancient animal migration routes, oil and chemical spills into the sea, and the unforeseen impacts from climate change causing the melting of the ice cover. Many of these impacts will take a very long time to reverse: the low temperatures mean slow chemical breakdown of contaminants, whereas populations of large mammals can be slow to recover." ••>

UNEP Global programme of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities (UNEP GPA). ••>

UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN ECE. ••>

UNEP:s Regional Office for Europe. ••>

Regional conventions, agreements, action plans and actors

Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. ••>

  • Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). ••>
  • Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). ••>
  • Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR). ••>
  • Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment. ••>
  • Working Group on Sustainable Development (SDWG). ••>

Arctic Council. ••>

Barents Euro-Arctic Council. ••>

Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control. ••>

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic • OSPAR Commission. ••>

Regional reports on the state of the marine and coastal environment

AMAP: State of the Arctic Environment Report. First assessment with respect to pollution issues.

OSPAR Quality Status Report 2000 Region I: Arctic Waters.

European Environment Agency (EEA): State of the European Arctic Environment.

EEA: State of the Environment Information System — Arctic.

UNEP: Global Environment Outlook 3 (GEO3). Coastal and marine areas.

UNEP GPA: Arctic Region (brief description of environmental state, priority issues, etc.).

UNEP GRID–Arendal: Artic Map Server. Presents environmental variables and parameters on the environment in the Arctic region.

University of Rhode Island: Large Marine Ecosystems (LME): The region includes the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, the Beaufort Sea, the Chukchi Sea, and the Barents Sea.

Other publications on marine oil pollution:

Norwegian University of Science and Technology: Recovery of oil spills in marine Arctic regions.

Minerals Management Service: Detection and Tracking of Oil under Ice.

World Conservation Union (IUCN): Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in Arctic and Subarctic Onshore Regions: Guidelines for Environmental Protection.

Private sector and NGOs actors and initiatives

World Wide Fund for Nature,WWF, Arctic Programme.

International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, ITOPF. ••>

International Directory of Oil Spill Cleanup Contractors and Response Organisations. ••>

International Petroleum Industry Environmental Association (IPIECA). ••>

National action: CANADA

Environment Canada • Environnement Canada

National Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities.

Environmental Emergencies.

Summary of Spill Events in Canada 1984-1995.

Oil, Water and Chocolate Mousse.

Oiled Bird Rehabilitation Program.

Canadian Coast Guard • Garde côtière canadienne

Environmental Response.

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada • Affaires indiennes et du Nord Canada

Northern Oil and Gas.

National action: DENMARK

National Environmental Research Institute and Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland: Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland Coastal Zone..

National action: NORWAY

Norwegian Petroleum Directorate

Norwegian Pollution Control Authority

Norwegian Coastal Authority

State of the Environment Norway


PAME: National Plan of Action for the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment from Anthropogenic Pollution in the Russian Federation.

Ministry of Natural Resources: North-West Federal District: State of the Environment.

National action: UNITED STATES

National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA ):

Office of Response and Restoration;

National Ocean Service

Damage Assessment and Restoration Program.

US Coast Guard (USCG):

National Response Centre.

Marine Safety and Environmental Protection

Spills in U.S. Waters, Annual Data and Graphics, 1969-2000.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

• Regional Office Alaska: Regional priorities: Oil and gas.

Oil Spill Learning Centre.

Emergencies (with contingency plans, emergency preparedness and response).

US Department of the Interior:

National program

Offshore Minerals Management

Alaska Offshore Region

Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation: Division of Spill Prevention and Response.

Alaska Department of Natural Resources: Division of Oil and Gas

Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission.

In the autumn of 1994, an estimated 300 000 cubic metres of crude oil leaked from old and corroded regional Kharyaga Usinsk oil pipeline in the Komi Republic in Russia, about 1,600 km NE of Moscow. It resulted in large volumes of oil being spread over the surrounding areas, wetlands and streams. Pechora is the largest river of the Barents Sea basin, and kocal people depend on it for its fish resources, drinking water, transportation, and livestock grazing (on the river banks). Temporary dams and dikes failedto contain the oil and contributed to significant environmental damage and risks to human health.

Photo: World Bank