Red Sea & Gulf of Aden

nternational actors and agreements in the region

The Red Sea & Gulf of Aden have been designated as a Special Area for the purpose of Annex I to MARPOL 73/78

See Global action and Global actors.

UNEP Regional Seas Programme. ••>

UNEP Global programme of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities (UNEP GPA). ••>

UNEP Regional Office for West Asia (ROWA). ••>

UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). ••>

International Coral Reef Initiative and other organizations and networks on the threats to coral reefs, including the effects of litter/debris.

Regional conventions, agreements, action plans and actors

Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (Jeddah Convention) • Regional Organisation for Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA). ••>

The Strategic Action Programme for the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden • PERSGA. ••>

Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan. ••>

Jeddah Memorandum of Understanding • Jeddah Declaration. ••>

Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment (CAMRE) • Abu Dhabi Declaration. ••>

Indian Ocean memorandum of understanding on port state control. ••>

African Development Bank. ••>

Regional reports on the state of the marine and coastal environment

PERSGA in cooperation with UNEP GPA: Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities Affecting the Marine Environment in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

UNEP Regional Office for West Asia: State of the Environment in West Asia: "In West Asia, the challenges that are associated with marine and coastal issues include oil pollution, sewage and other land-based effluents, the physical alternation of coastal areas, including land-filling, dredging, and modification of river course". [...] The regional marine environment has been subjected to pressures from an unprecedented rate of industrial and urban growth, over 75 per cent of which has been in the coastal areas."

UNEP Regional Seas: "The major threats to the marine environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden are related to land-based activities. These include urbanization and coastal development (for example, dredge and fill operations), industries including power and desalination plants and refineries, recreation and tourism, waste water treatment facilities, power plants, coastal mining and quarrying activities, oil bunkering and habitat modification such as the filling and conversion of wetlands - - - Coastal industries in the region include power and desalination plants, refineries, fertilizer manufacturers and chemical plants. These industries and their effluents (oil, organic pollutants, heavy metals, heated brine and cooling water) are considered important problems in every country of the region."

UNEP GPA: Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (brief description of environmental state, priority issues, etc.).

UNEP: Global Environment Outlook 3 (GEO3). Coastal and marine areas.

University of Rhode Island: Large Marine Ecosystems (LME): The region includes one complete Red Sea LME, and the Gulf of Aden as part of the Arabian Sea LME.

Private sector and NGOs actors and initiatives

Oilwatch. ••>

International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF). ••>

International Directory of Oil Spill Cleanup Contractors and Response Organisations. ••>

International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA). ••>

No major accidents with oil spills have been reported from the Red Sea & Gulf of Aden. However, in October 2002, the oil tanker Limburg was rammed by a smaller boat off the coast of Yemen in what is suspected to have been a deliberate attack. About 700 tonnes of crude oil was spilt.

Photo: © Le Cedre: Centre de Documentation, de Recherche et d'Expérimentations sur les Pollutions Accidentelles des Eaux.